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AMA Citations

AMA References

Unlike APA, AMA does not require an "&" in between author last names. For instance, if Terry Jones and Janie Smith co-authored an article, you cite it as "Jones T, Smith J." 

  • Author Names: Note the comma in between authors and a period at the end.
  • Multiple authors: If there are more than three authors, then use "et al." For example: Pancake T, Jones L, Hobbs K, et al. 
  • Article Title: Capitalize the first letter of the title, with every other word lowercase. No italics. ex: The history of scoliosis.
  • Journal TitleAbbreviated Title of Journal. List it in italics. ex: Clin History.
    • See "Finding the proper abbreviation" below.
  • Year/Edition/Volume/Pages: Year; volume number (issue number): page number-page number. ex: 2021;13(2):123-142.
  • Date: Month day, year format. ex: Accessed May 3, 1990. Finding the proper abbreviation

Finding the proper abbreviation: 

Reference ListDo not double space the items in your reference list. Here is what a properly formatted reference list would look like in your paper: 


  1. Fischer MA, Stedman MS, Lii J, et al. Primary medication non-adherence: analysis of 195,930 electronic prescriptions. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(4):284–290. doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1253-9
  2. Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction. Case studies from four Canadian clinics. Published June 2020. Accessed November 23, 2020.
  3. Schumock GT, Donnelly A. Business planning for pharmacy programs. In: Zgarrick DP, Desselle SP, Moczygemba LR, Alston G, eds. Pharmacy Management: Essentials for all Pharmacy Practice Settings. 5th ed.  McGraw-Hill; 2020:chap 7.  Accessed November 25, 2020.
  4. Dash D.  Young Adult Experiences with a Mobile Smoking Cessation Application: A Qualitative Evaluation of Crush the Crave. Master's thesis. University of Waterloo; 2016. Accessed November 23, 2020.

Reference (this box originates from): 

University of Waterloo. (2021, January 25). Examples of In-Text Citations. Retrieved from

In-Text Citation Basics

"Each reference should be cited in the text, tables, or figures in consecutive numerical order through the use of superscript numbers.

  • The superscript numbers in the below example refer to that item in your reference list.
  • Direct quotes: Anytime you quote something directly, quotation marks are required.
  • Here is what properly formatted in-text citations would look like in your paper:

This sentence refers to content taken from the first item in your reference list, that is why the number ‘one’ appears at the end of this sentence.Keep in mind that if you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing information in your work, you need to indicate the original source of information.The ‘three’ at the end of this sentence refers to the third item listed in your reference list.Notice that the superscript numbers appear immediately after the period.1,3" 

Reference (this box originates from): 

University of Waterloo. (2021, January 25). Examples of In-Text Citations. Retrieved from

When to list page numbers?

Do I need to include page numbers?
When citing AMA style, the inclusion of page numbers in an in-text citation is not required. Rather, it is optional. 
At the same time, some instructors request that your in-text citations include page numbers. Always talk to your instructor to clarify expectations.

If you need to include page numbers in your in-text citation, here’s how: 

  • The Kirk Report states that “85% of surveyed Ontarians indicated that they have called Telehealth Ontario at least once in the last year.”6(p19) The next example shows how you would cite a direct quotation that is from multiple pages of a work. “This study provided insight into incoming pharmacy students’ Facebook activity, as well as their attitudes toward online personas and accountability for information displayed on online social networking sites.”7(pp5-6) The last example shows how to cite multiple page numbers and references. Addison8(pp3,6),9 reported 7 cases in which an allergic reaction was observed.

Reference (this box originates from): 

University of Waterloo. (2021, January 25). Examples of In-Text Citations. Retrieved from