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A course guide dedicated to Bioethics

Purdue Owl

Purdue University has an excellent online writing lab (Purdue OWL) that assists students with academic writing. Purdue OWL has citation guides at:

How to Write: Annotated Bibliography

What is an annotated bibliography?

  • It is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. 

  • An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source.

  • Annotated bibliographies answer the question: "What would be the most relevant, most useful, or most up-to-date sources for this topic?"

  •  Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself. 

Annotation versus abstracts 

An abstract is a paragraph at the beginning of the paper that discusses the main point of the original work. They typically do not include evaluation comments. 

Annotations can either be descriptive or evaluative. The annotated bibliography looks like a works cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. 

Types of Annotations: 

Descriptive Annotations: Focuses on description. Describes the source by answering the following questions. 

  • Who wrote the document?

  • What does the document discuss?

  • When and where was the document written? 

  • Why was the document produced?

  • How was it provided to the public?

Evaluative Annotations: Focuses on description and evaluation. Includes a summary and critically assess the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. 

Evaluative annotations help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project.

What does the annotation include?

Depending on your assignment and style guide, annotations may include some or all of the following information. 

  • Should be no more than 150 words or 4 to 6 sentences long. 
  • What is the main focus or purpose of the work?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • ​How useful or relevant was the article to your topic?
  • Was there any unique features that useful to you?
  • What is the background and credibility of the author?
  • What are some conclusions or observations that you have reached about the article?

Which citation style to use?

There are many styles manuals with specific instructions on how to format your annotated bibliography. This largely depends on what your instructor prefers or your subject discipline. Check out our citation guides for more information. 

How to Write: Proposal

Writing your proposal takes time and effort, but the writing comes only after a significant amount of preliminary work has been done. 

Common Parts of a Proposal 

  • Cover or Title Page 
  • Abstract 
  • Introduction 
  • Description of the Proposed Research 
  • Literature Review 
  • Budget 
  • Personnel.Biographical Profile 
  • Institutional Resources /Equipment 
  • Agreement from any collaborators 
  • Data Management Plan 

Questions to Ask Yourself: 

  • Is my project interesting to me and worth doing? 
  • What other literature can I find on my topic?
  • Have I identified an appropriate funding agency?
  • Am I following the rules of the funder and university?
  • Will I need to collaborate with other researcher?
  • Have I set realistic goals and timeline?
  • Have I developed a realistic and accurate budget?
  • How will I evaluate the success of the project?