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Respiratory Therapy

This resource is designed to make research simpler for undergraduate respiratory therapy students.

APA Citations

Journal Articles

  • When journal or periodical information is missing (such as volume/issue number or page range) omit it from the reference.
  • The basic format for a periodical work follows this format:
  • Author. Date. Title of article. Source (including volume, issue, page range). DOI or URL.

One author

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. 

Peshori, K. S. (2015). Forensic accounting a multidimensional approach to investigating; Frauds and scams. ____International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, 2(3), 26-36. 

More than one author

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages.

Chen, W., Wu, F., You, Z., Zhang, Z., Guo, Y., & Zhong, L. (2015). Analyzing the differentially expressed genes and ____pathway cross-talk in aggressive breast cancer. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research, 41(1), 132-140. ____http://10.1111/jog.12495

Reference ("Journal Articles" information from):

Parker, J. (2020, October 9). Citing with APA. Retrieved from:

Proper Date Format

APA 7th requires complete dates where possible, but if you cannot find a complete date, give as much information as you can find.

The date format is YYYY, Month DD or YYYY.

  • (2019, April 12-14)
  • (2015, January)
  • (2018)

Reference (box taken from):

James Cook University Australia. (2020, October 9). APA (7th edition) referencing guide. Retrieved from


Book references no longer require the publisher location as part of the citation. You only need to list the publisher.

One author

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Black, B. P. (2014). Professional nursing: Concepts & challenges. Elsevier.

More than one author

Two authors: List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and."

Held, J.S. & Posner, D. (1971). 17th and 18th century art: Baroque, painting, sculpture, architecture.H.N. Abrams.

Three to seven authors: List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kotler, P., Hessekiel, D., & Lee, N. R. (2012). Good works!: Marketing and corporate initiatives that build a better world--and the bottom line. Wiley.

Eight or more authorsList by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.

Smith, B. G., Harrison, F., Hunter, D. T., Goodman, K. T., Williams, T. P., McGillis, A., . . . Cleary, B.

Edited works

Author, A. A., (Ed.) (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Lane, E., & Shengold, N., (Eds.). (1988). The actor's book of scenes from new plays. Penguin Books.

Chapter or article from a book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Publisher.

Kuh, G. D., Boruff-Jones, P. D., & Mark, A. E.(2007). Engaging students in the first college year: Why academic librarians matter. In L.L. Hardesty (Ed.), The role of the library in the first college year (pp. 17-28). University of South Carolina.


especially those from our research databases

Author. A. A., (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.

Note: a DOI is not always available. If there is no DOI the citation will look like a print book record.

Bürkle, T., Lehmann, M., Denecke, K., Sariyar, M., Bignens, S., Zetz, E., & Holm, J. (2019). Healthcare of the Future : Bridging the Information Gap. IOS Press.

Colgrove, K. C., & Doherty, C. (2019). Pharmacology Success: Vol. Third edition. F.A. Davis.

Crosby, J. (2014). The Personalism of John Henry Newman. Catholic University of America Press.

Reference (box taken from):

Parker, J. (2020, October 9). Citing with APA. Retrieved from:


UpToDate Articles

Author, A. A. (Date of last update). Title of article. UpToDate. Retrieved MM DD, YYYY, from

Simon, G. (2019). Effect of antidepressants on suicide risk in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved Sept. 9, 2020 from


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

DeNoon, D. J. (2012). How much caffeine is in your energy drink? Retrieved from

Movies and TV Shows

For films, the director should be listed as the author.

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of motion picture [film]. Studio.

Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [film].Universal Pictures.

For TV series, the executive producer should be listed as the author(s). For a TV episode, the writer(s) and director(s) of the episode are listed as authors. 

Writer, W. W. (Writer) & Director D. D. (Year of Publication). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In E. Producer1, & E. Producer2 (Executive Producers), Title of show. Studios.

Interviews or Personal Communication


Personal communications may be private letters, memos, emails, personal interviews, and telephone conversations. According to APA, because they are not considered recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list and should be cited in the reference list. 

For your in-text citation include their name, the type of communication and as accurate a date as possible. The other person's name will be listed in the same format used for authors in a reference.

(A. A. LastName, personal communication, Date of communication)

(J. A. Parker, personal communication, October 28, 2018)

TED Talk

For TED Talks you will list the presenter as the author:

Speaker, S. S. (Year, Month). Title of TED Talk [Video]. TED Conferences. URL from

OR if viewed from YouTube:

TED. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. YouTube.

TED. (2011, May 2). Eli Pariser: Beware online "filter bubbles" [Video]. YouTube.

Interview or Personal Communication

Recording or Transcript Available

If you have an audio file or written transcript of the personal communication, it should be cited in text and in your reference list. If you do not have all of the information, complete as much as possible.

Audio file:

LastName, A. A. (Date). Interview by B. B. LastName [format of recording]. Title of interview, Place where recording available, Place of Publication.

Jones, B. L. (2016, June 11). Interview by J. K. Lotz [mp3 file]. Library Services at Newman University, Copy in possession of author.

Written transcript (no audio available):

LastName, A. A. (Date) Title of interview with interviewer name/Interviewer: FirstName A. LastName. Occassion of recording, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Jones, B. L. (2016). Library services at Newman University 1933-2006 with Bob L. Jones/Interviewer: Jim K. Lotz. Newman Archives Project, Newman University, Wichita, KS.

Reference (box taken from):

Parker, J. (2020, October 9). Citing with APA. Retrieved from:


When no author is listed, put the name of the organization as the author. 

Reference example: United Health Care. (2020, August 25). What you need to know about health. American Press.

   The same is true for in-text citations.

Parenthetical citation example: 1st citation: (National Fire Protection Association [NFPA], 2009).

Parenthetical citation example: Subsequent citations (NFPA, 2009).

Reference (box taken from):

IRSC Libraries. (2020, October 8). APA 7th edition style guide: About APA. Retrieved from

In-Text Citations

Indirect Quotes or References to Material

  • When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
  • Every source cited in the text should appear on your reference list and every item on your reference list should be cited in your paper.
  • If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
    • Example: (Black, 2014)

Direct Quotes

  • If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name, followed by the date of publication in parentheses..
    • Example: According to Peshori (2015), "In India it was the Kautilya who was the first economist who openly recognized the need of the forensic accountants" (p. 28). 
    • OR: (Peshori, 2015, p. 28)

Narrative Citations

  • If you are including the citation as part of the narrative of your paper, you don't have to put an additional citation at the end of your sentence. 
    • Example: Smith (2018) found...,
Reference (box taken from):

Parker, J. (2020, October 9). Citing with APA. Retrieved from: