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Theological Citations

How to Cite the Summa

Layout of the Summa (ST)

  • Volume (three volumes total)
  • Question (topic)
  • Article (multiple articles per question)
  • Objections (possible answers)
  • Sed contra (responses to possible answers)
  • "I respond that" (Thomas' answer)
  • Replies to objections

In-text citations

  • (ST volume#.question#.article# section name).
  • ex: If you are citing volume one, question two, article three, this is how it is cited:
  • (ST 1.2.3 Abbreviation).
    • Objection one: "Abbreviation"
  • (ST 1.2.3 ad 1).
    • Reply to objection one: "ad 1"
  • (ST 1.2.3 resp).
    • Thomas' respondeo: "resp" 
  • (ST 1.2.3 sed contra).
    • Sed contra section: "sed contra"


  • Aquinas, T. (year of the edition that you are using). Summa theologica. (L. Shapcote, Trans.). Publisher. URL if accessed online (Original work published 1265-1274)